Is it common for roof sheathing to be damaged when installing shingles? I recently had my home re-roofed and several of the existing pieces of sheathing appear to have been damaged (shattered) by the penetration of the new nails. There are several holes in the sheathing that are up to about 5in x 8in and numerous other spots where the sheathing splintered or cracked. I can only see the sheathing in about 1/4 of the home and I am concerned that more damage likely occurred in the areas which I cannot view. What should the contractor reasonably be expected to do about this issue?
Based off your photo, this is not normal- it depends on what kind of sheathing they used. ½ OSB or plywood would withstand any nail penetration without splintering or cracking. We are curious if they used a different style of untreated underlayment that is not made to withstand high pressure nail penetrations. Any good contractor would stand by their work- they should come and inspect the area and make sure all areas are tight and not at risk for a blow off. If the nails are free moving then the shingles on the outside can be free moving; therefore, risking a blow off. Ask the contractor to provide what kind of lumber was used and encourage them to use the correct underlayment and make the area watertight. 1/2in to 5/8 even up to ¾ inch should be used.